Noun Study Notes in Hindi : जानिए कितने प्रकार का होता हैं Noun और क्या हैं इसके प्रयोग के नियम_00.1
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Noun Study Notes in Hindi : जानिए कितने प्रकार का होता हैं Noun और क्या हैं इसके प्रयोग के नियम

Noun Study Notes in Hindi : अंग्रेजी सेक्शन को लगभग हर सरकारी परीक्षा में शामिल किया जाता है, चाहे वह एसएससी, बैंक, रेलवे की परीक्षा हो या कोई अन्य परीक्षा हो। कई विद्यार्थी विभिन्न कारणों से इस अनिवार्य विषय से डरते हैं, जबकि वास्तव में, यह केवल कुछ ग्रामर के नियमों और vocabulary का संग्रह है। इस लेख में, हम noun के सभी महत्वपूर्ण नियमों, प्रकारों और विभिन्न पहलुओं पर बात करेंगे। यह noun की बेहतर समझ विकसित करने में काफी लाभदायक होगा।

Noun के प्रकार

1. Proper Noun: proper noun किसी व्यक्ति विशेष या स्थान का नाम है।
Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.
 
2. Common Noun : यह एक ही प्रकार के व्यक्ति या वर्ग को संबोधित करने के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है।
Ex- boy, girl, teacher etc.
 
3. Collective noun: यह व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के समूह का बोध कराता है।
Ex- army, committee, crowd etc.
4.Abstract Noun: यह किसी वस्तु को व्यक्त करने के बजाय उसके विचार, गुणवत्ता या स्थिति को दर्शाता हैं।
Ex- strength, innocence, fear, judgment. Etc.
5. Material Noun: यह मिश्र धातु से बनी सामग्री, पदार्थ या चीजों का बोध कराता है।
Ex- cotton, gold, silver etc.

NOUN : Gender

1. Masculine Gender
जिस noun से नर(male) का बोध होता है, उसे Masculine Gender कहते हैं।
Ex- Man, boy, Tiger, Sun etc.
2. Feminine Gender: जिस noun से मादा(female) का बोध होता है, उसे Feminine Gender कहते हैं।
Ex- woman, girl, nature, lioness etc.
3. Common Gender: जिस noun से स्त्री और पुरुष दोनों का बोध हो , उसे common gender कहा जाता है।
Ex- Parent, child, student, cousin etc.
4.Neuter Gender: जिस noun से किसी निर्जीव वस्तु का बोध हो, जो न नर हो न मादा हो, उसे Neuter gender कहा जाता हैं।
Ex- Book, Pen, room etc.

NOUN: NUMBER 

1. Singular Noun: 
जिस noun से किसी एक व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध होता है, उसे Singular Number कहा जाता है।
Ex- pen, cow, boy etc.
2. Plural Noun: जिस noun से किसी एक से अधिक  व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध होता है, उसे plural Number कहा जाता है।
Ex- Pens, Boys, Cows etc
NOUN : Countable और Uncountable  Noun
Countable nouns वे वस्तुएं हैं जिन्हें हम गिन सकते हैं।
Ex- book, apple, doctor, horse etc.
Uncountable nouns वे वस्तुएं हैं जिन्हें हम गिन नहीं सकते हैं।
वे मुख्य रूप से पदार्थ और अमूर्त चीजों को निरूपित करते हैं।
Ex- milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty etc.

NOUN : CASES

case वाक्य में noun या pronoun की स्थिति के बारे में बताता है।
अंग्रेजी में, 5 case होते हैं।

  • Nominative case: a noun is said to be in the nominative case if it is the subject of a verb. Ex- Ram is an intelligent boy.
  • Objective case: Nouns or Pronouns are said to be in objective case if they are the direct object of verbs or the objects of the preposition.
  • Dative case: A noun is said to be in Dative case if it is the indirect object of the verb.
  • Rohan brought me a flower. (‘Me’ is in dative case)
  • Possessive case: A noun is said to be in the possessive case if it denotes possession or ownership.  Ex- This is your pencil. (‘your’ is in possessive case)
  • Vocative case: A noun or pronoun is said to be in vocative case if it is used to call ( or to get attention of a person or persons). Ex- Mr. Mallya, people are waiting for you in the hall. (Mr. Mallya is in vocative case)
  • NOUN in Apposition

when one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it.

  • Ex- Ram, our captain, made fifty runs.
  • Kabir, the great reformer, was a weaver.

नियम और उदाहरण(RULES AND EXAMPLES)

1. कुछ nouns के साथ हमेशा singular verb का प्रयोग होता हैं।

Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.

  1. The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting. (Correct use- is)
  2. He has given advices. (Correct use- advice)

2. कुछ nouns अर्थ में singular होती हैं, लेकिन वे plural nouns के रूप में प्रयोग की जाती हैं और हमेशा plural verb लेती हैं।

Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.

  1. The cattle is grazing in the ground. (correct use- are)
  2. Police has controlled the situation. ( correct use- have)

3. कुछ nouns हमेशा plural form में उपयोग की जाती हैं और हमेशा plural verb लेती हैं।

Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.

  1. Where is my trousers? (correct use- are) 
  2. Spectacles is a costly item. (correct use- are) 

4. कुछ nouns ऐसी होती हैं जो लंबाई, माप, धन, वजन या संख्या का संकेत देती हैं। जब उनके पहले कोई अंक होता है, तो उसका form अपरिवर्तित रहता हैं।

Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.

  1. It is a five years degree course. (correct use- year)
  2. I have seven dozens of shoes. (correct use- dozen) 

5. jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, आदि Collective nouns का प्रयोग singular और Plural दोनों रूपों में होता हैं। यह उपयोग पर निर्भर करता है।

  1. The jury was divided in their opinion. (correct use- were)
  2. The team have not arrived yet. (correct use- has) 

6. कुछ nouns का एक अर्थ singular में और दूसरा plural में होता है:

  • Advice = counsel, advices = information
  • Air = atmosphere, airs = proud
  • Authority = command, authorities = persons in power
  • Good = wise , goods = property
  • Iron = metal, irons = fetters, chains
  • Force = strength, forces = army
  • Content = satisfaction, contents = things contained
  • Respect = regards, respects = compliments
  • Work = job, works = compositions, factories,.

7. कुछ nouns के प्रयोग में लोग अक्सर गलती करते हैं-

  1. Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
  2. Freeship is wrong; free – studentship is correct.
  3. Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
  4. Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
  5. English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
  6. Cousin – brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
  7. Wages means punishments when used in the singular.
  8. It also means charges for the labour when used in the plural sense.

8. pronoun व्यक्ति, संख्या और लिंग में अपने पूर्ववर्ती से सहमत होना चाहिए।

उदाहरण के लिए-

  • Every student must bring his luggage.
  • All students must do their home work.
  • Each of the boys must carry his own bag.

9. ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, और ‘each’ का प्रयोग करते समय संदर्भ के अनुसार masculine या feminine gender के सर्वनाम का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

  • I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
  • But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
  • Anyone can qualify this exam if he tries.
  • Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect)
  • Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)

10. ‘one’ pronoun के बाद हमेशा ‘one’s’ आता हैं।

  • One must finish his homework in time.  (Incorrect)
  • One must finish one’s homework in time.  (Correct)

11. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, आदि का जब transitive verbs के रूप में उपयोग किया जाता है, तो वे हमेशा अपने बाद एक reflexive pronoun लेते हैं। जब ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, के साथ ‘self’ और our और them के साथ ‘selves’ आता है तो उनके reflexive pronouns होते हैं।

  • He absented from the meeting. (Incorrect)
  • He absented himself from the meeting. (Correct)

12. ‘Who’ सब्जेक्ट को दर्शाता है जबकि‘whom’ का प्रयोग ऑब्जेक्ट के लिए किया जाता है-

Who: It’s the subject of a verb—e.g., Who gave you that book?

It’s a predicate nominative (a noun in the predicate that renames or refers to the sentence’s subject)—e.g., This is who I am.

Whom is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives the action of a verb. It also has two main uses:

  • It is the object of a verb—e.g., Whom should I call?
  • It is the object of a preposition—e.g., From whom did you get this information?

13. जब दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’, ; और ‘or’, जुड़ी हो तो singular pronoun का प्रयोग किया जाएगा।

  • Either Rohan or Sohan will give their bike. (Incorrect)
  • Either Rohan or sohan will give his book. (Correct)

14. जब एक singular और एक plural noun ‘or’, ‘nor’ से जुड़ा हो, तो plural pronoun का प्रयोग होगा।

  • Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect)
  • Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)

15. ‘Whose’ का प्रयोग जीवित व्यक्तियों के लिए तथा ‘which’ का प्रयोग निर्जीव वस्तुओं के लिए किया जाता है।

  • Which novel did you select?
  • Whose photograph is lying there?

16. ‘Each other’ का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब दो सब्जेक्ट या ऑब्जेक्ट हों और ‘one another’ का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब दो से अधिक हों।

  • Ram and Sita loved each other.
  • Those five students, who are sitting there, love one another.

17. जब एक pronoun एक collective noun के लिए आया हो, तो यह singular number और neuter gender में होनी चाहिए, यदि collective noun को समग्र रूप से देखा जाता है लेकिन यदि यह different entities का आईडिया देता है, तो plural pronoun का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Eg: The jury gave ‘its’ verdict.

Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.

यदि collective noun अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों के आईडिया को व्यक्त करती है जिसमें संपूर्ण शामिल हो, तो इसके लिए plural pronoun का प्रयोग होगा।

Eg: The jury were divided in their opinions.

in this sentence, the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.

18. यदि वाक्य में भिन्न-भिन्न persons के pronouns का एक साथ प्रयोग करना हो तो persons का क्रम इस प्रकार होना चाहिए;

Second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in  normal sentences. But when mistake or fault is expressed in the sentence, the order should be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third person(3). RULE-231

Eg: You, he and I have finished the work. (Normal idea)

I, you and he are to blame. (here Confession of guilt is expressed , it’s a negative idea, hence order is 123)

19. quantity या degree को व्यक्त करने के लिए ‘Some’ का प्रयोग सकारात्मक वाक्यों में किया जाता है। ‘Any’ नकारात्मक या प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में प्रयोग किया जाता है।

  • I shall buy some apples.
  • I shall not buy any apples.
  • Have you bought any apples?

But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.

  • Will you please give me some water?

20. ‘few’, ‘a few’’ और ‘the few’ का प्रयोग सावधानी से करना चाहिए। वे ‘number’ को दर्शाते हैं।

‘Few’ means ‘not many’, ‘almost nothing’.  A ‘few’ is positive and means ‘some at least’. ‘The few’ means ‘whatever there is’.

  • A few men are free from fault. (Incorrect)
  • Few men are free from fault. (Correct)

21. ‘less’ और ‘fewer’ का प्रयोग

‘Less’ मात्रा को दर्शाता है और ‘fewer’ संख्या को दर्शाता है।

  • No less than fifty students were selected. (Incorrect)
  • No fewer than fifty students were selected. (Correct)
  • There are no fewer than five liters of water in the bottle. (Incorrect)
  • There are no less than five liters of water in the bottle. (Correct)

22. little, a little, the little का प्रयोग

  1. ‘Little’ means ‘hardly any’
  • There is little hope of his recovery. (Incorrect)
  • There is a little hope of his recovery. (correct)

2. ‘A little’ means ‘some’, though not much.

  • Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Incorrect)
  • A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Correct)

3. ‘The little means ‘not much but all there is’.

  • Little water that is in the bottle may be used for the child. (Incorrect)
  • The little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Correct)

23. elder, older का प्रयोग

‘Older’ का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के साथ-साथ वस्तुओं को भी संदर्भित करता है और इसके बाद ‘than’ का प्रयोग होता है।

  • Rohan is elder than all other boys of this area. (Incorrect)
  • Rohan is older than all other boys of this area. (Correct)

‘Elder’ का प्रयोग एक ही परिवार के व्यक्तियों के लिए किया जाता है।

  • Sabu is my older brother. (Incorrect)
  • Sabu is my elder brother. (Correct)

24. comparative degree में सामान्यत: ‘than’ का प्रयोग होता है, लेकिन superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior और prefer जैसे शब्दों के साथ ‘to’ प्रयोग किया जाता है।

  • Sara is junior than Neeta.( Incorrect)
  • Sara is junior to Neeta. (Correct)
  • I prefer reading than walking. (Incorrect)
  • I prefer reading to walking. (Correct)

25. जब comparative के बाद ‘than’ का उपयोग करके तुलना की जाती है, तो ‘other’ शब्द को तुलना की गई चीज़ों की उस श्रेणी से बाहर करना चाहिए जिसके साथ इसकी तुलना की जाती है।

  • He is better than any man. (Incorrect)
  • He is better than any other man. (Correct)

‘Any man’ includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be awkward.

26. कुछ मामलों में, comparison सूक्ष्म होती है और इस पर उचित ध्यान दिया जाना चाहिए।

  • Ex- The climate of Delhi is better than Mumbai. (Incorrect)

यहां तुलना दिल्ली की जलवायु और मुंबई की जलवायु के बीच होनी चाहिए।

  • The climate of Delhi is better than the climate of Mumbai. (Correct)

या

The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. (Correct)

(Here, ‘That of’ means ‘the climate of’)

If the traits are in plural, it will be ‘those of’.

The products of Reliance are better than those of Suzuki.

  • The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. (Incorrect)
  • The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. (Correct)

27. ‘Many a’ के बाद हमेशा singular verb का प्रयोग होता है।

  • Many a student were drowned in the river. (Incorrect)
  • Many a student was drowned in the river. (Correct)

28. यदि सब्जेक्ट ‘the number of’ हो तो singular verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है। और जब (‘a +number+of) का प्रयोग किया जाता है, तो plural verb का प्रयोग होता है।

  • The number of students are very small. (Incorrect)
  • The number of students is very small. Correct
  • A number of girls has passed in the examination. (Incorrect)
  • A number of girls have passed in the examination.( correct)

29. जब ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ और ‘with’ की सहायता से दो सब्जेक्ट जुड़ते हैं, तो क्रिया का प्रयोग पहले सब्जेक्ट के अनुसार किया जाएगा।

  • Ram, as well as his five friends, are going.( Incorrect)
  • Ram, as well as his five friends, is going. (Correct)
  • The teacher, along with the students, were dancing.( Incorrect)
  • The teacher, along with the students, was going. (Correct)

Noun Study Notes in Hindi : जानिए कितने प्रकार का होता हैं Noun और क्या हैं इसके प्रयोग के नियम_50.1

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